Forum for Development and Human Rights Dialogue (FDHRD)
"Complaints Book- DIWAN EL MAZALEM".
Analysis of the contents of the newspapers columns on complaints received by citizens.
During the period from 1st January till 30th April 2005
The second part
Analysis of complaints' contents
First: The right to get education:
A lot of philosophers and politicians were interested in the issue of education. For example, one of the famous photospheres whose name is " Aflatun " stated in his book named "Al Gomhoriya" that education is one of the basics of any respected country because such country can not exist without good citizens. In addition, such citizens can not exist without good education system. Therefore, he calls for the countries to take the full responsibility to have comprehensive and full supervision over education and shall not leave such supervision to individuals and private institutions (6).
In this context (7), it must be noted that education is very important to prepare individuals to be good citizens and be able to think soundly.
Furthermore, education is the main pillar for production as the power of the economy depends on science and knowledge. In addition, education is one of the significant of income distribution in the society. In this regard, FDHRD monitored the rate of unemployment among youths through complains in the newspapers. The monitoring resulted in that the education in Egypt does not satisfy development needs.
In this context, the tenth article of the declaration on the enhancement and development in the sociology field, issued by the UN General Assembly on 11 December 1919, stipulated:
? he enhancement and development in the filed of sociology must aim at achieving the continuous promotion of the spiritual and material aspects of the lives of all individuals in society together with the respect of human rights and basic freedoms in order to achieve the following aims:
F- To eliminate illiteracy and guarantee getting free education in all education levels including the primary education as well as to raise the cultural education.
In addition, article 6 of the "International Declaration on education for all people that is issued in 1999 stated:
"Education can not take place while separated from other issues . Therefore, society has to provide all needed nutrition, health care, physical and physiological supports for those who receive education in order to be able benefit from education and be able to participate effectively in what they are taught ? "
Regarding the international guarantees for the right of education, article 13 of the Internal Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights issued 1966. The Egyptian government ratified this convention and so it becomes part of its national legislative. This article states:
"1. The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education. They agree that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. They further agree that education shall enable all persons to participate effectively in a free society"
In Egypt, the percentage of illiteracy reached 27.70% of the total sum of population while 40% of the illiterate are women. In this regard, it is clear that high rate of illiteracy in Egypt indicates that the educational system is unable to attract students and most of the students leave their education because they are not interested in it. During 2001 and 2002, the percentage of male students who left primary education in the urban areas reached 0.76% while it reached 1.03% during 2003 and 2004. Furthermore, male students who left primary education in the rural areas during 2001 and 2002 reached
The percentage of male students who left preparatory education in the urban areas was 3.71% during 2001 and 2002 while it was 2.97% during 2003 and 2004.
In addition, the percentage of female students who left preparatory education in the urban areas was 3.51% during 2001 and 2002 while it was 4.97% during 2003 and 2004.
On the levels of governorates, the high percentage of those who left education was in the governorate of South Sinai which reached 11.74% , then came the governorate of Red Sea which reached 7.41% while the percentage in Alexandria governorate reached 6.05% and it reached 3.6%. in Cairo governorate.
FDHRD observed that the number of complaints related to the right to education reached 119 complaints to the high education ministries and all related institutions.
This number includes 149 complaints related to the basic education while 50 complaints related to the university education.
Second: The right to access to food, health care, housing and economic security:
The total income of each individual in Egypt in 2004 is about 1440 US $ which means that the monthly income of the individual is about 120US$ that equals 800 L.E. This sum of money is considered to be under the line of poverty due to the international criteria which consequently leads to problems such as the deterioration of health , poor and insufficient social services obtained by poor families.
The total share of each individual in the foreign debts is about 440US$.
The researchers define the group of people who had low income as those families who live at or under the line of poverty. This line is the line that separate between the poor and those who are not poor. Therefore, the poor are those who live under this line. In addition, poverty is one of the reasons that lead to poor health care because poor families do not see the doctor except when their health is extremely deteriorated. Besides, their houses lack clean water or sewerage systems and therefore their environment is unhealthy in general (8).
The last UN report gives a real picture of the bad social situation in Egypt. It stated that there are 10.7 million Egyptians who can not get their nutrition needs while 24.8% whose daily income is 2US$ dollars. The most dangerous thing is that the percentage of poverty in Egypt increased to be 7% after the recent raise of prices.
The same report confirmed that the percentage of poverty in Egypt reached 16.7% and therefore 10.7 million people can not get their daily food while 1% of the Egyptian get less than 1 US$ daily and 24.8% whose daily income is 2US$ dollars.
The rate of poverty in rural areas in upper Egypt is very high as it is 34% while it is 19.3% in the urban areas in upper Egypt. In addition, the rate or poverty is less in the urban governorates which reaches 5%. However, this rate reaches it highest in Asyout and then comes the governorates of Beni Sweef and Sohag while poverty in the governorate of Monofoyia is very high.
The stability of prices and limitations on their increases are the most important tools to decrease the burdens on the shoulders of the Egyptians. . In this regard, numbers mentioned in the report issued by the Central Body of Statistics, refers to the fact that there is an increase in prices of food to reach 9.3% increase and the prices of meat which reach 16.9% . In addition, the prices of fishes reach 19% , the prices of milk and cheese reach 16.5% , the prices of fruits reach 16%, the prices of vegetables reach 41.9% and the prices of sugar reach 18.4%. Besides, there are increases in prices of cloth and clothes that reach 10.1%, the prices of tobacco reach 30.4%, the prices of water, electricity and fuel reach 5.3% and the prices of furniture and house equipments and maintenance reach 5.8%. Furthermore, the increase of the prices of transportation reach 8.7%, the prices of communication reach 23.8%, the prices of cultural and entertainment services reach 1.1% and the prices of education reach 8.7%. Moreover, the increase of the prices of hotels and restaurant services reach 3.5% and prices of other various services reach 4.2% . Finally, the same report affirms the increase of prices in last November and December reach 0.3% because of the increase in the price of food and drink which reach 0.7%.
There is still lack of water, electricity, sewerage and roods in some areas. Therefore, the Ministry of Local Development puts a time schedule of three years in order to complete and finalize any uncompleted basic facilities . In addition, the spread out of the random houses in Egypt is considered a violation of the right of housing as there are still random houses all over Egypt in 20 governorates. There are 68 area that are in urgent need of development while there other 12 area that must be removed for security reasons. In this regard, it must be noted that the spread out of the random houses is a result of the collapse of about 3000 of houses in El Sayeda Zeinab, El Khalifa, El Gamalyia and Bolak. In addition, the number of population in these areas reaches 37% of the total number of people residing in urban area in Egypt. The Information and Decision Making Body states that there are 1034 random societies in 2003 while the Central Body of Statistics states that there are 909 random areas. In this respects, the different in numbers may have taken place because of the lack of the existence of a specific definition of random areas (9).
The latest report issued by the National Planning Institute states that the number of people in the random area in Cairo, Giza and Qalyoubiyia reach 8 million while 614000 people reside in 1.7.9 kilometers square.
Regarding the problem of health care, it does not only have an effect on the lives of people but it has bad negative effects on the process of development and production and the national security. In this regard, article 16 of the Egyptian constitution states "The state guarantees the cultural, social and health services".
There are other problems that exist together with the increase of prices, which are the problems of unemployment. In addition, the low amount of social insurances given by the Ministry of Social Affairs to specific groups. These groups such as the widowers, the divorced women, sons and daughters of divorced women who got married again
or died , orphans and old age who are above 65 years and the families of the prisoners who are detained for a period more than three years. In this context, FDHRD calls for the increase of the minimum and maximum amount of social insurance and pensions, which are mentioned in law no. 30 of 1977. Such increase shall be in conformity to the increase of the living standards particularly to those who are very poor and those who are vulnerable.
In addition, it must be noted that the health insurance system does not reach many groups in Egypt.
A report named "The development aims of the millennium" issued by the UN states that Egypt has very low standard in relation to the poor income. Besides, it states that the rate of poverty in Egypt reaches its highest in Upper Egypt (41%-54%)
Although the Egyptian countryside form 48% to 50% of the total size of Egypt, services such as water, electricity, sewerage, roads and other services does not reach 240 villages due to the annual report of the Land Center issued in 2004.
Third: The right of children to get health and social care and to be protected against violence and exploitation:
A lot of studies on child labor in Egypt affirms that there is a close relation between the deterioration of the educational system and problems related to education and the increase of the child labor (10).
When children work while they are not psychologically and physically prepared, there are negative factors affecting their safety and growth (11). In addition, they are suffering from deprivation from education and enjoying their age. Finally, on the long run the child labor affect in the process of development in general.
On the other hand, the children of today are the laborers of the future when they are grown up. Therefore, when they enjoy good health, education and gain skills when they are young, the economic of the country will be developed. For example, in Egypt, labor is considered one of the elements that is available in great number and so the increase of the standard of this element lead to the increase of production and improvement of economic status of the country (12). Therefore, when the young generations of today enjoy good health and education, the general expenditures of services related to health and education will be decreased.
The health care of children particularly in poor families is considered one of the dangerous problems because children do not go to the doctor except when their health is extremely deteriorated (13). In addition, children in those families get less care in general which affects their health, psychological and physical formation as well as their character and education (14).
In this respect, article 2 of the Declaration of the International Labor Organization states " All states even those who did not ratify the convention
are obliged when they affiliate to the organization to respect the basic rights which are:
C- The complete elimination of the child labor.
The convention regarding the Minimum Standards of Juvenile Labor in industrial works states in its second article that juveniles who are under 15 years shall not be recruited in any public or private industrial body or their branches (15).
In addition, the second article of the convention regarding the minimum standard of juvenile labor in non-industrial works states (16) " Juveniles who are under 15 years or those who are above this age are obliged to complete their primary education due to the local laws and regulations".
Fourth: The right to work:
This right includes the responsibility of the competent authority to provide job opportunities for individuals through the increase of the public and private investments. In addition, it includes the protection of individuals from unemployment.
In this regard, the phenomenon of unemployment is wide spread in Egypt and is one of the reasons of the deterioration of the right to the economic security. The latest report of the Central Body of Statistics states that the population of Egypt reach 71897547 and 69997318 of them are living inside Egypt while 900339 are working abroad.
Although the rate of population growth in Egypt decreased this year, the increase of population is still extracting the developmental and productive recourses and incomes, which lead to the decrease of the national income, the living standard and the hindering of development. In addition, the increase of population leads to the insufficient amount of investment allocated for schools, hospitals, food production and medicines. Finally, it leads to the deterioration of the problem of unemployment and the increase of the elimination of illiteracy and the decrease of education level.
Dr. Ehab Elwi , the head of the Central Body of Statistics stated in Al Ahram newspaper on the work force in Egypt that it reached in last January 21176000 workers which mean that there was increase of 374000 workers which constitutes 2.4%. He also stated that the rate of unemployment decreased last January as it becomes 10.57% while it was 10.82% in January 2004. Finally, he requested that there must be an increase in work opportunities to recruit about 70 to 80 thousand people annually. This can be done through the efforts by businessmen and civil society.
On the other hand, the private sector in Egypt is not able to recruit more people particularly that the administrative body of the country decrease the number of new recruited people as well as there was decrease in the budget of the country. In this regard, the private sector is facing real and serious problems that hinder it from providing work opportunities. These problems such as the inability of some businessmen in paying their debts to banks , the control of the government over all aspects and complaints from the increase of the prices of basic services and the prices of infrastructure of factories in new cities such as electricity, water and gas. In this regard, many factories were closed and were sold because of the increase of their debts. These factories are located in the industrial cities in El Sadat industrial city, Borg El Arab, 10 th of Ramadan city and 6 th of October city.
The right to work is retreated because of the spread out of the phenomenon of poverty in the Egyptian society as a great number of people are living under the poverty line.
Poor families can not cover their daily needs or their gains are not sufficient to over such needs ( Food, clothing , housing , heating, lighting and kitchen tools (17))
The negative consequences are uncountable but it must be noted that some of poor families try to minimum their expenditures to an extent that they do not fulfill their needs at all and that is clear in the following examples:
The newly married couple does not live on their own house but live with one of their family and so members of the family are overcrowded in one house. In addition, some of them do not marry because of the lack of money.
Due to the difficult economic status, many citizens are marginalized and they do not have any chance in political participation and decision making. In addition, there is a general atmosphere of indifferences among people.
This report monitored some complaints related to the right to work such as the lack of obtaining a suitable salary, coercive dismissal and termination of work contracts because of diseases caused by the job.
Fifth: The right to protect the environment
It is obvious that the coming generations have the right to inherit fertile lands.
In Egypt, there are many fertile agricultural lands in the Nile valley and Delta but some of them are transferred to be constructive lands for houses. Therefore, the right of the coming generations to inherit fertile lands is violated.
In this regard, the declaration related to the Advancement and Development in the Social Field, adopted by decree no. 2542 on 11/12/1969 states in articled 7 :
" The rapid increase in the national income and resources and the fair distribution of these resources among the members of the society , are considered the basics of the advancement of the society and therefore they shall be on the top priorities of all states and governments". Besides, article 17 approached the conditions of conducting industrial works, environment conditions and the balance between the rural no urban societies.
On the other hand, Cairo has for about 12 thousand and 5 hundred industrial bodies that constitute 60% of the total industrial bodies in Egypt. In addition, there are 750 iron foundry factories, 285 coal factories, 522 bricks factories, 265 breakers and 223 turnery factories. These factories cause a lot of air pollution in Cairo as they spread out sulfur dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon. Such elements are caused by the burning of firewood and fuel such as coal, petroleum and natural gas.
Besides, the recent studies indicate that women and children subject to the population of air particularly in the rural area where there is the process of firewood and burns of agricultural remains such as fuel. Therefore, women and children got diseases such as optic and nose diseases, chronic obstructive lung disease and nasal esophagus cancer.
In this regard, although the share of each individual in Cairo in the agricultural land is 1.6 meter square, there are 609 Kilometers squares of agricultural lands in Cairo, which are considered very small pieces of lands in comparison with countries like Britain.
The report that named " The development aims of the millennium" issued by the UN in 2000 states that there shall be a decease in the number of those who are deprived from clean drinking water and sewerage at the beginning of 2015 to reach at least half of those who are deprived from such services.
In the last report named "The development aims of the millennium" , UN affirmed that the preservation of environment is very important to preserve the life of human being . Therefore, the good environmental practices are very important to keep permanent development and consequently all countries must keep their environment clean and safe for all coming generations.
However, there are some challenges that face the developing society. One of these challenges is the ability of society to achieve economic growth without the damaging of the environmental resources. In this regard, the Arab counties and Egypt that are still conducting comprehensive development are encountered with such challenge. Therefore, the permanent use of natural resources particularly the use of water require all the sectors of society to work together in order to have a good environmental administration which shall work on preserving the natural resources.
The annual cost of the deterioration of environment in Egypt is 14.5 hundred millions which equal 4.8% of the national income. In addition, Egypt spends 4.4 billion annually in order to improve the environment, which equals 1.3% of the national income, and therefore there is a gap of 10 hundred million annually between the sum spent on the development of environment and money lost because of the deterioration of environment in Egypt.
Examples of the deterioration of environment is as follows:
The sinking of agricultural lands and the accumulations of salt in them.
The deterioration of the fertility of the Egyptian lands.
The pollution of the lands with dangerous materials and remains.
Transferal of agricultural lands to non-agricultural.
The natural enlargement and broadening of desert that affect on the Nile valley and Delta.
It is also clear that the deterioration of the agricultural lands threatens the national economy and affect on the income of the poor. The deterioration of the agricultural lands is known as the transferal of such lands to desert lands. In the UN conference of 1977 defined such lands as the decrease and the deterioration of the biological capacity of the productivity of lands which lead them at the end to be desert lands".
Sixth: The right to land:
Female and male farmers, agricultural workers and inhabitants of the agricultural lands as well as their lands participate effectively in planning, administering and implementation of economic programs on the public level. In addition, they shall participate in the rural development programs and the re-distribution of agricultural lands on the private level as well as they shall participate in the decision making process related to such policies based on transparency , democracy and monitoring. In this case, there will be effective rural development that there will be permanent and suitable work opportunities. In addition, there will be preservation of the productive skills, promotion of self-dependency and will limit of the nutrition shortage.
In mid 1990s , law no. 1669 of the year 1992 was issued in Egypt . This law is related to the relationship between the renters and owners of the lands. This law came 23 years after the law of the agricultural reform was issued in 1969 when there was poor renting status and bad relation between the renters and the owners of the lands. There are still incidents of social violence because of the dismissal of renters or the increase of rents that do not conform to the increase of prices on one hand and the profits gained by the renters of the land on the other hand. In this regard, the government preferred to be a neutral part because it wants the relation between the owner and the renter of the land to be a direct one. Therefore, there was an increase in the number of the farmers who rent lands but they did not own of lands .In addition, those who have very small lands became very desperate. In this regard, the farmers' ownerships of lands is a guarantee of the preservation of the natural resources of agricultural lands that will be inherited by the coming generations.
In the light of the above, it is clear that the process of agricultural reform is the one, which adopts a fair policy in distributing lands. In addition to there shall be an adaptation of policy of fixing prices and an existence of social security and insurances for families that depend on agricultural lands as their source of income.
Seventh: The rights of laborers to negotiate on the appropriate salary that they deserve and on the suitable conditions of work and the proper safe atmosphere.
Article two of the International Labor Organization on the basic principles and rights stated " All member states and those who did not ratify the convention shall respect the basic principles mentioned in this convention which are:
The syndicates' freedoms and the effective recognition of the right to group and joint negotiation.
The elimination of all forms of forced labor.
Article one of the convention related to the laborer's representatives in 1971 " The laborer's representatives shall be provided with effective protection from any measures that may harm them including dismissal. Such measures shall not take place because of their activities as laborer's representatives or because of their participation in the syndicates activities in case they conform to laws or joint labors agreement or other agreements related to work".
In addition, the same article states that the laborer's representatives shall be given necessary facilities in order to perform their work in a legal and effective way".
Other international conventions such as the convention of free syndicates of 1949 and the convention of the laborer representatives of 1971 affirm that laborers shall be protected from any kind of discrimination targeting their syndicates freedom and protect them from any kinds of measures related to their syndicates activities.
Eighths: The right to equality:
This right includes the right of women to enjoy the same advantages like men and protect them from any kind of discrimination.
Although women is trying to achieve gains and progress, the status of women is still inferior to that of the man such as :
- The percentage of illiteracy among women is higher in comparison with the same percentage among men in the Arab countries (18).
- The percentage of the participation of women in work is very low.
- The percentage of unemployment among women is low.
- There is discrimination against women regarding the low salary they are given.
- There is discrimination against women in receiving productive services and resources such as lands, water, technological debts, marketing services and training.
- The rate of poverty among women is high.
The convention of the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women issued on 3/9/1981 and was ratified by Egypt on 20/7/1981 and was then adopted by the presidential decree no. 434 of the year 1981 as Egypt ratified this convention with some reservation. This convention is considered the international constitution for the rights of women.
This convention called for comprehensive equality between women and men in all political, economical, social and cultural fields. In addition, it affirmed on the equality between women and men in job opportunities, job promotions and administrative jobs.
Besides, there are other several international covenants on the protection of the rights of women in relations to the equality between men and women such as the political rights of women, which was issued in 1952 and entered into force in July 1954 as well as the declaration related to the elimination of violence against women in 1993.
Furthermore, the Egyptian constitution issued in 1971 states the followings:
- "All citizens are equal before the law. They have equal public rights and duties without discrimination due to sex, ethnic origin, language, religion or creed". Article 40
- "The State shall guarantee equality of opportunity to all Egyptians". Article 8
- "Citizens . may not be dismissed by other than the disciplinary way except in the cases specified by the law". Article 14
There is no doubt that from the theoretical perspective, the Egyptian law and constitution affirms on the equality of chances for women and men. However, in practice, the equality is not implemented due to cultural and social constrains.
Finally, FDHRD affirms that there shall be guarantees and actual implementation of the right of the equality of women in society as a basic condition for the economic and social development.
Ninth: The right to political participation:
This right means that all individuals have the right to gather with others and they can assemble together to discus any issues frankly and freely without any intervene or harms caused by the ruling authority.
The political participation is a right guaranteed by the Egyptian constitution and the international covenants on human rights. In this regard, article 5 of the Egyptian constitution affirmed on the fact the political system in Egypt is based on the multi-political system
In addition , article 54 states " Citizens shall have the right to peaceful and unarmed private assembly, without the need for prior notice. Such private meetings should not be attended by security men. Public meetings, processions and gatherings shall be allowed within the limits of the law."
Article 63 states" Every individual shall have the right to address public authorities in writing and with his own signature. Addressing public authorities should not be in the name of groups with the exception of disciplinary organs and legal person"
Besides, article 62 states" Citizen shall have the right to vote, nominate and express their opinions in referenda according to the provisions of the law. Their participation in public life is a national duty."
Furthermore, law no. 37/56 is about the practicing of political rights through participating in presidential referenda and the practicing of right to elect the members of the peoples' Assembly and Shoura council and the members of the local peoples' council. Such election shall be a right of everyone who is and above 18 years old without any discrimination due to sex except the police and armed forced officers during their duty. In addition, law no. 38 of 1972 states the conditions of candidacy for the membership of the Peoples' Assembly as half of its members shall be from the Egyptian farmers and workers who are born from Egyptian fathers and who are registered in the electoral tables that are above 30 years old.
Moreover, law no. 40 of 1997 regulates the right to political participation and the right to affiliate to any political party. This law affirms on the importance of the contribution of political parties in achieving political, social and economic advance for the country based on the national unity. It also affirms on the role of these parties as national, peoples' and democratic organization that work on gathering citizens together and represent them politically.
Article 21 of the International covenant on Civil and Political Rights states "The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right"
In addition, Article 22 states " Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others, including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his interests".
In the light of the above, it must be noted that the Egyptian legal and legislative articles do not reach the democratic and political participation levels that are required by those who work in the public work
In addition, there are administrative and security restrictions practiced by the executive authority in order to limit the right of the participation of citizens in organizing peaceful assemblies.
In this regard, we need pages to talk about these laws (19) headed by the emergency law that restrict the practicing of this right. In this regard, the legal and political activists are struggling peacefully in order to remove all the legislative restrictions that hinder the practicing of the right to political participation.
The most important kind of participation is the peoples' participation. In this regard, the program of the "peoples' participation" issued by the UN defined it as:
"the organized efforts (20) to increase the control over the resources and ruling institutions under the existence of specific social statuses . This efforts are conducted by groups of people and movements who under not under such control".
In addition to the political participation in the country affairs, there is social participation in organizing production and living conditions (housing, medication, transportation and entertainment).
Tenth: The rights of individuals in receiving administrative measures that shall protect their interests and protect them from exploitation.
Citizens have right to complain against any harms they subject to when implementing some projects as well as they have a right to get fair treatment when enjoying their rights.
The administrative development is the basics of any kind of development because the administrative development is part of the economic development. In this regard, Dr. Abd El Motaleb Abdel Hamid states" The economic reform does not exist without the administrative reform as the economic reform require the prevail of an financial and administrative atmosphere that assist in the participation of all sectors and individuals in the developmental planning".
In addition, there is a strong relation between economy and administration as well as the motivation of the political participation in development. When there are freedoms in works of private sector and civil society forces as well as business sector in order to create a competitive atmosphere. In this regard, Dr. Mahmoud Abdel Hai , the head of the Planning Institution affirms that the administration is the strategic factor in any process of reform.
The rights of individuals in receiving administrative measures can not be separated from the existence of a democratic administration that shall work on trying to solve the problems of citizens in order to gain the trust of citizens and therefore the administration shall be able to participate in the process of planning. However, in the case when there is not democratic administration, a lot of corruption will be clear and obvious to everyone. Such corruptions like bribery, using connections, administrative coupe and the lack of honesty.
Finally, it is clear that any administrative crisis in any sectors of the society will assist in the hindering of the process of development. On the other hand, the administrative reform of the administration is the door of renascence and reform in Egypt.
6 - "Education and political education in Egypt", Dr. Kamal El Monofi, 1994
7 - The religious message in Education – El Nada' El Gadeed messages" , Dr. Kamal Mogheith, page no. 41
8 - Statement of the minister of planning, Mr. Othman Mohamed Othman in a press conference on 21 st February 2005. This statement was published in Al Ahram newspaper on 22/2/2005.
9 - "The policy and system of health care in Egypt . To where", Dr. Zoheir Mohamed No'man, a report issued by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights in 1994".
10 - "The determination of planning indicators in order to face the phenomenon of childhood in the Arab society", Ahmed Bashier , Ain Shams university, 1991
11 - " The social dangers accompanying the early joining of the labor market", Aza Seyam, The studies center for childhood, Ain Shams University , 1995.
12 - " Child labor in small factories" , Dr. Ola Mostafa and Dr. Aza Mostafa. The national center for social and criminal researches, Cairo in 1996
13 - " The influence of economic policies on poor families and children in Egypt", Dr. Karima Kareem – El Nobar Print house , 1989.
14 - " Care of children in poor families in Egypt" , Dr. Abdel Mon'em Shawki
15 - It entered into force on 21/2/1941.
16 - It entered into force on 29/12/1950.
17 - " Poverty in Egypt", Dr. Ezat Hegazy. The national center of social and criminal researches.
" The human resources development in Egypt", Mr. Ibrahim El Esawi, the Egyptian magazine for development and planning, the third volume , first issue of June 1995.
18 - " Some of the effects of the economic reform and the structural adaptation on the Arab women", Dr. Ibrahim Ahmed Hassan, 1994
19 - To know more about such laws, please review " Laws that restrict the civil and political rights " , Mr. Abdallah Khaleel. A book issued by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights in 2000.
20 - " The structures of political participation in Egypt", Dr. Abdallah Khalil. Part of a book named " Rights that can not be divided " a book issued by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights in 1994.